Philosonic Research Commitments

1. Who  can make sounds/music, and who can interpret/use them? 
2.  What is  the  pattern of  musical acquisition and learning? 
3.  Are there stratifications of skill and knowledge? What types? How are they sanctioned, recognized, and maintained? 
4.  Is musical acquisition assumed to  be  unproblematic? A  necessity? 
5.  Do ideologies  of  "talent"  determine or  constrain acquisition and competence? 
6.  What is the relationship between competence, skill, and desire for music? 
7.  What are the differences between production and reception skills, for individuals, across social  groups? 

1. What are the  material musical means and how are they  organized into recognizable codes? 
2.  How  are musical means distributed across settings and participants? 
3.  What are the preferred aesthetic orderings? 
4.  What are the boundaries of perceived forms? What does it mean to be wrong, incorrect, or otherwise marginal from the standpoint of code flexibility and use? 
5.  How  flexible,  arbitrary, elastic,  adaptable, open is  musical form? How resistant to changes, internal or external pressures, or other historical forces? 

1. What are the  relationships between makers and materials? 
2.  What is the relationship between individual and collective expressive forms and performance settings? 
3.  How are forms coordinated in performance? How adaptable and elastic is musical form when manipulated by different performers at a single moment in time or  over time? 
4.  How do cooperative and competitive social relations emerge in performance? 
What meanings do  these have for performers and audience? 
5.  How  do  performances achieve  pragmatic (evocative,  persuasive,  ma- 
nipulative) ends,  if  at  all? 

1. What resources does the environment provide? How are they exploited'? What relationships exist between resources, exploitation, and the material means and social  occasions for performance? 
2.  Are there co-evolutionary patterns, ecological  and aesthetic, linking the environment and sound patterns, materials, situations'? 
3.  What are the visual-auditory-sensate relationships between people and environment, and how is this pattern related to expressive means and ends'? 
4.  What myths or models scaffold the perception of the environment? Are these related or  complimentary to  conceptions of  person, society,  expressive resources? 
5.  What mystical or cosmological associations with the environment support, contradict, or otherwise relate to the socioeconomic context of musical beliefs and occasions? 

1.  What are the sources of authority, wisdom, and legitimacy about sounds and music? Who can know  about sound? 
2.  Is  musical knowledge public, private, ritual, esoteric? 
3.  What dimensions of musical thought are verbalized? Taught verbally? Non-verbally? 
4.  Is theory necessary? How  detached can theory be  from practice? What varieties of knowledge and activity count as musical or aesthetic theory'? How is  music rationalized? 

Value and Equality 
1. Who values and evaluates sounds'? Who can be valued and evaluated as a maker of  sounds? 
2.  How  are  expressive  resources distributed, specifically  among men and women,  young  and old? How do  stratifications emerge? 
3.  How do balances and imbalances manifest themselves in expressive ideology and performance? 
4.  Do  sounds deceive? Mystify? Who? Why? 
5.  Are sounds secret? Powerful? For whom? Why? 
6.  How  do  musical materials or performances mark or maintain social differences? How are such differences interpreted? How are they sustained? Broken or  ruptured? Accepted or  resisted? 

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